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          中國古代的“點茶”技藝,可以甩咖啡拉花幾條街

          來源:中國日報網 編輯:sophie ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

          It's common to see a barista create coffee art, but it's a whole different ballgame doing same thing with tea. Han Zheming has managed to perfect the skill, creating tea art in cups, or dian cha in Chinese, which used to be a ritual during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).

          如今,咖啡拉花已經很常見,不過在茶湯上作畫就鮮為人知了。韓喆明就是這門手藝的傳承人,他學習并完善了這一藝術。中文里,這項藝術被稱作“點茶”,曾是宋代(960-1279)的一項儀式。

          Over the past six years, the 40-year-old Shanghai resident has used tea and spoons to create nearly 200 patterns based on ancient paintings.

          在過去六年的時間里,40歲的上海設計師韓喆明使用茶粉和茶勺,在茶湯上勾勒了近200幅古畫。

          "It's like adding bells and whistles to tea and giving people a stronger sense of occasion, so drinking tea is more fun," Han says.

          韓喆明說,“對茶進行藝術加工,可以讓人們有更強的儀式感,增加品飲的趣味?!?/p>

          It's also his intention to bring the old ritual back to modern life and have more people appreciate its charm. Dian cha in modern brewing enhances the taste of tea, Han says. "It is similar to the foam on top of a cup of coffee, except that it is made of tea rather than milk."

          他還希望這種古老的中國點茶文化能與當代人的生活相結合,讓更多人欣賞它的魅力。韓喆明說,點茶能增強茶的味道?!澳憧梢岳斫鉃榭Х壬系哪躺w,只是它是由茶做的,而不是由奶做的?!?/p>

          Chinese tea culture started to enjoy popularity during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and flourished throughout the Song Dynasty, when tea had become a necessity for almost everyone, from nobles and scholars to common people, just like other indispensable items, such as rice, oil and salt, as suggested by Song politician and thinker Wang Anshi.

          中國茶文化在唐代(618-907)開始發展起來,在宋代達到了“盛造其極”的境界。正如宋朝政治家、思想家王安石所記錄的:彼時茶已成為幾乎所有人的必需品,從貴族、學者到普通人,它就像米、油和鹽一樣不可缺少。

          Different from the method of brewing tea during the Tang period, in the Song Dynasty, the prevalent way of having tea was through dian cha. The process begins with hot water being poured over fine powdered tea creating a paste, then more hot water is slowly added as the tea is constantly whisked by hand with a bamboo stick. It is believed that this method later spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan, where similarities can be seen in the way matcha is prepared today.

          與唐代的泡茶方法不同,宋代盛行的喝茶方式是點茶。首先將熱水倒在細密的茶粉上,調成糊狀,然后慢慢加入更多熱水,用茶筅不斷擊打,直到出現厚厚的泡沫。有人認為,這種方法后來傳播到包括日本在內的東亞其他地區,與抹茶的制作方式十分相似。

          This action of pouring hot water is called dian, hence the name dian cha, which was listed as an intangible cultural heritage of Runzhou district, Zhenjiang city, Jiangsu province, in 2019.

          這種加入熱水的動作被稱為“點”,“點茶”因此得名。在2019年被列為江蘇省鎮江市潤州區的非物質文化遺產。

          "It is sort of like how you mix baby formula with water," Han says about tea-whisking, adding that the key is to practice coordination between the wrist and the arm. "It usually requires whisking the mixture between 180 and 200 times before the water and the tea are fully blended and the froth appears."

          “這有點像用水調嬰兒的奶粉”,韓喆明說,“點茶的要領在于練習手腕和手臂的協調性。一盞茶大約要擊打180-200下,水與茶才會完全融合并出現泡沫?!?/p>

          Then, one can take the liberty of making artistic designs in the froth with the concocted tea paste.

          然后,他便可以用調好的茶膏,自由地在泡沫上作畫。

          Han has been fascinated by the culture and art of the Song Dynasty, and has engaged in its artistic practices since childhood.

          韓喆明自幼學習繪畫,對宋代的文化和藝術有著深深的熱愛。

          "My mother loves traditional culture and I have been leaning toward it under her influence," Han says.

          韓喆明說,“我母親是傳統文化愛好者,在她的影響下,我也踏上了這條道路?!?/p>

          In 2002, Han was admitted to the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, and spent four years learning design.

          2002年,韓喆明被位于浙江杭州的中國美術學院錄取,并在設計專業學習了4年。

          After graduating in 2006, he worked as a graphic designer for a games company in Shanghai, and took great delight in drinking tea. This led him to learning about traditional tea culture and buying ceramic tea sets, especially those made in the style of the Song Dynasty. During the process, he also met people with the same interest.

          2006年畢業后,他在上海一家游戲公司擔任平面設計師,業余愛好品茶。漸漸地,他開始了解傳統茶文化,并購買陶瓷茶具,特別是宋代茶具。在這個過程中,他也遇到了很多志同道合的人。

          "We exchanged notes and compared our collections," Han says.

          韓喆明說,“我們相互交流心得,欣賞彼此的藏品?!?/p>

          While studying history journals trying to figure out the reasons behind the use of tea sets, he stumbled upon the art of tea-whisking.

          為了弄清楚宋人為何愛用那樣的器物來喝茶,韓喆明于是頻繁查閱文獻,在此過程中接觸到了宋代點茶。

          "I was amazed by this exquisite way of drinking tea, which was also loved by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty," Han says.

          韓喆明說,“點茶這種精致的喝茶方式讓我大為贊嘆。據說它同樣深受宋徽宗喜愛?!?/p>

          The emperor's book, Treatise on Tea, exposed Han to the details of tea-whisking. In the eyes of people of that time, good tea should be white and fine, Han explains. The better the tea, the whiter it should be, and the longer the froth should last.

          宋徽宗所作的《大觀茶論》一書,對“點茶”有詳細描述。宋人對于好茶的標準,從外觀上看,要潔白細膩,越好的茶越白,泡沫越持久。

          Han experimented with several kinds of tea, such as green and black, eventually settling on using white tea.

          韓喆明用多種茶葉磨成的粉分別做試驗,比如綠茶和紅茶,最后他選用了白茶。

          "It's fermented longer on the surface level and is relatively sweet, and the bubbles are white and fine," he says. "It's the tea that's closest to the description of dian cha of the Song Dynasty."

          韓喆明說,“白茶是一種長時間淺層發酵的茶,比較甘甜,打出來的泡沫又白又細。這是最接近宋人描述的茶湯效果的?!?/p>

          Han was curious about the patterns created on the tea foam, as recounted in ancient documents, and began his attempt at reviving the art form with the understanding that the froth resembles paper, while the tea paste is like ink. Despite a background in classical painting, applying the theory in practice proved to be quite different to how he had imagined.

          韓喆明對古代文獻記載的茶盞所呈現的畫面感到非常好奇,于是他試圖“復活”宋人的茶湯創作。他認為茶沫鮮白類似紙張,而茶膏則像墨水。盡管有國畫基礎,韓喆明在創作過程中還是發現,事實與他的想象有很大出入。

          "When it comes to traditional painting, it is about the soft brush against the hard paper, but with the tea, it is the other way round," Han says. "It's the hard teaspoon against the soft froth."

          韓喆明說,“在國畫里,毛筆在紙上作畫是‘軟碰硬’,但是用茶勺在松軟的茶湯泡沫上作畫是‘硬碰軟’?!?/p>

          Some of his classical painting skills can be applied to tea, but require a degree of modification.

          一些古典繪畫技法可以用于茶上,但需要一定程度的調整。

          Han says he often goes to museums to observe Song paintings. "It has to be cautious work, but quick, before the froth dissipates."

          韓喆明說,他經常去博物館看宋畫?!跋鹿P需謹慎且快,必須趕在泡沫消失前完成?!?/p>

          Usually, the whole process has to be completed within 10 minutes. The ideal state is when the tea temperature is around 40 C, ready for the palate. It was through trial and error that Han got going. "Usually, it takes a year of practice for one to fully grasp tea-whisking."

          一般來說,從開始點茶到畫作完成,時間要控制在10分鐘左右。創作的理想條件是茶葉溫度在40攝氏度左右,剛好可以入口時。剛開始時,他經歷了多次試驗和失敗?!巴ǔ?,一個人需要經過一年的練習,才能完全掌握點茶的技巧?!?/p>

          Now, he can deliver a piece of tea-whisking art in "one take", including reproducing the well-known Eyes Embroidered with Plum Blossoms by Huizong.

          如今,他可以一氣呵成地在茶盞上作畫,包括臨摹北宋趙佶的《梅花繡眼圖》。

          However, the pattern on tea froth will only last for up to an hour.

          然而,茶湯上的畫面最多只能維持1小時。

          "It's an evanescent art," says Han, adding that he takes photos of his work as a way of extending its life.

          韓喆明說,“這是一門短暫的藝術?!彼o自己的作品拍照,保留它們的美。

          With his increasing input to the art, Han quit his job at the games company in 2019 and has been spreading dian cha culture ever since. He put the process of tea-whisking and drawing on social media platforms, including Little Red Book, Bilibili and Douyin. He has more than 20,000 followers on Little Red Book, and some of his videos have received more than 300,000 views.

          隨著對這門藝術的投入越來越多,為了更好地推廣點茶文化,韓喆明在2019年辭去了游戲公司的工作。他把點茶作畫的過程發布在小紅書、B站和抖音等社交媒體上。他在小紅書上已有超過2萬名粉絲,一些視頻獲得了超過30萬的瀏覽量。

          Speaking about his understanding of this tea art, Han says it's "to increase aestheticism" rather than change the essence of tea.

          談到他對這種藝術的理解,韓喆明說,對于茶的藝術加工是為了“提升美感”,而不是取代茶的本質。

          "As well as the poems, calligraphy and paintings that were created back then, I want more people to understand the items used by people to drink tea, and the reasons behind the ways they prepared tea," he says.

          韓喆明說,“除了宋代文人在玩茶時留下的詩詞、書畫作品等,我希望大家可以了解宋代飲茶的器物,以及當時文人為什么要那么玩茶?!?/p>

          (來源:中國日報雙語新聞微信 編輯:左卓 商楨 周嬋 丹妮 記者:楊飛躍 )

          本文轉載自中國日報網,如有侵權,請聯系我們刪除。

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