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          《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(11)(中英對照)

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          2. Increasing Protection of the Rights of Women, Children and the Elderly

          2.婦女兒童老年人權益保障持續加強

          Optimizing laws and policies. Since they were promulgated in the 1990s, the Law on the Protection of Minors, the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests, and the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly have undergone multiple revisions to better serve their purpose.

          法律政策體系日臻完善。中國于20世紀90年代先后制定未成年人保護法、婦女權益保障法、老年人權益保障法,并對三項法律進行多次修改完善。

          A series of laws and regulations, including the Law on Maternal and Infant Health Care, the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, the Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees, the Provisions on Prohibiting the Use of Child Labor, the Regulations on School Bus Safety Management, and the Special Provisions on the Protection of Juvenile Workers, have been enacted to lay down a legal basis for protecting the rights of women, children and the elderly. The government has issued the Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Mechanism for Evaluating Gender Equality Implications in Laws, Regulations and Policies, to codify and institutionalize the basic national policy of gender equality and promote the all-round development of women.

          制定母嬰保健法、反家庭暴力法、預防未成年人犯罪法等法律,頒布《女職工勞動保護特別規定》《禁止使用童工規定》《校車安全管理條例》《未成年工特殊保護規定》等行政法規及部門規章,為保障婦女兒童老年人權益奠定了法律基礎。印發《關于建立健全法規政策性別平等評估機制的意見》,切實從法規、規章、政策的源頭上貫徹男女平等基本國策,促進婦女全面發展。

          The Civil Code promulgated in 2020 includes articles regarding the right of habitation, the common debts of spouses, and measures to prevent and stop sexual harassment, further strengthening protection for the three groups. The Chinese government has developed three outlines and plans for the development of women, three for children, and five for the elderly.

          2020年頒布民法典,增設居住權,明確夫妻共同債務的范圍,增加防止和制止性騷擾等條款,進一步提高了婦女兒童老年人等群體的保護水平。中國政府先后制定實施三個周期的中國婦女發展綱要、中國兒童發展綱要和五個老齡事業發展綱要(規劃)。

          Empowering women to participate in economic and social affairs. The illiteracy rate of women aged 15 years and above dropped from 20.5 percent in 1979 to 7.3 percent in 2017, and the proportion of female students in junior colleges and universities rose from 24.1 percent in 1978 to 51.7 percent in 2019. More than 40 percent of the employed are women.

          婦女經濟社會參與能力不斷提升。全國15歲及以上女性文盲率由1979年的20.5%降至2017年的7.3%,普通高等學校本??圃谛E荚谛I倲档谋壤?978年的24.1%提高到2019年的51.7%。全國女性就業人數占全社會就業人數的比重超過四成。2018年修訂的農村土地承包法明確規定,農村土地承包,婦女與男子享有平等的權利。

          The Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas amended in 2018 stipulates that women enjoy equal rights with men in undertaking land contracts. There were 742 female deputies to the 13th NPC in 2018, accounting for 24.9 percent of the total and 3.7 percentage points higher than the percentage of female deputies to the Sixth NPC in 1983. There were 440 female members in the 13th CPPCC National Committee, representing 20.4 percent of the total and 7.6 percentage points higher than that in the Sixth CPPCC National Committee in 1983.

          2018年十三屆全國人大代表中有742名婦女代表,占比24.9%,比1983年第六屆全國人大提高了3.7個百分點;十三屆全國政協委員中有440名女性委員,占比20.4%,比1983年第六屆全國政協提高了7.6個百分點。

          Improving health care for women and children. In 2020, the rate of prenatal care was 97.4 percent, and the rate of hospital deliveries was 99.9 percent. The government has carried out a program of free cervical and breast cancer checkups for women in rural areas, and brought cervical and breast cancer into the scope of national subsidies for serious illnesses.

          婦女兒童健康保障水平進一步提高。2020年,全國孕產婦產前檢查率為97.4%,住院分娩率為99.9%。實施農村婦女宮頸癌和乳腺癌免費檢查項目,將宮頸癌和乳腺癌納入國家大病救治范圍。

          The government has launched the Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas, benefitting 11.2 million children by 2020. Between 1991 and 2020, the mortality rate of children under five decreased from 61 per thousand to 7.5 per thousand.

          實施貧困地區兒童營養改善項目,截至2020年,累計1120萬兒童從項目中受益。5歲以下兒童死亡率從1991年的61‰下降至2020年的7.5‰。

          Providing special care and protection for children. In 2020, there were 29,000 community service centers and 249,000 service stations for children, 360,000 parenting schools, and 320,000 children's activity centers in urban and rural communities. There were 56,000 child welfare supervisors in towns and townships, and 675,000 child welfare directors in villages, forming a strong grassroots force for children's care and protection.

          兒童得到特別關愛和特殊保護。2020年,全國有兒童社區服務中心2.9萬個,社區服務站24.9萬個,城鄉社區家長學校36萬個,城鄉社區兒童之家32萬余個。全國鄉鎮一級配備兒童督導員5.6萬名,村一級配備兒童主任67.5萬名,基層兒童工作隊伍建設和兒童關愛服務水平不斷提高。

          Greater care and protection have been given to orphans, children with disabilities, rural left-behind children whose parents work in cities, and children in need. The state has strengthened guarantee for the basic needs of orphans. In 2019, the basic living subsidies from special government funds for orphans increased by 50 percent to RMB300, RMB450 and RMB600 per person/month for eastern, central and western regions. At the end of 2020, there were 60,000 orphans in child welfare institutions, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,611 per person; there were 134,000 orphans not in care facilities, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.

          進一步加強對孤兒、殘疾兒童、農村留守兒童、困境兒童等特殊群體的關愛保護。加大孤兒保障力度。2019年,中央專項資金對孤兒基本生活補助標準提高50%,東、中、西部分別補助300元/月、450元/月和600元/月。截至2020年,全國兒童福利機構集中養育孤兒6萬名,基本生活保障月平均標準達1611.3元/人;社會散居孤兒13.4萬名,基本社會保障月平均標準達1184.3元/人。

          The government issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening Protection of Uncared-for Children, to bring all de facto orphans into the coverage of state support. By 2020, 254,000 uncared-for children were covered by state support, and given an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.

          印發《關于進一步加強事實無人撫養兒童保障工作的意見》,將事實無人撫養兒童全面納入制度保障范圍。截至2020年,全國共有25.4萬名事實無人撫養兒童納入保障范圍,全國平均保障標準達每人每月1184.3元。

          The state maintains zero tolerance for crimes against minors. Between 2017 and 2020, prosecuting bodies at all levels approved the arrest of 160,200 people committing crimes against minors, and prosecuted 218,500 people. In judicial procedures, the rights of victimized minors are fully protected by promoting one-stop inquiry and assistance mechanisms integrating evidence collection, psychological counseling, and judicial assistance. By 2020, there were 1,029 one-stop inquiry and assistance sites across the country. More help is provided in different forms to minor victims. In 2019, more than RMB62 million of aid was granted to 4,306 minor victims and their families.

          堅持對侵害未成年人犯罪“零容忍”。2017年至2020年,各級檢察機關共批準逮捕侵害未成年人犯罪16.02萬人,起訴21.85萬人。在司法程序中充分保障未成年被害人的合法權利,推行具備取證、心理疏導、司法救助等功能的“一站式”詢問、救助機制,截至2020年,全國共建成“一站式”詢問、救助辦案區1029個。加強未成年被害人多元綜合救助,2019年共向4306名未成年被害人及其家庭等發放救助金6200余萬元。

          Guaranteeing the lives and rights of the elderly. The Chinese government is developing an old-age service network that coordinates home, community and facility care, and combines medical care with health preservation. It has strengthened care and services for left-behind elderly people in rural areas, and adapted home and public environments to make life easier for the elderly. Individual income tax deduction applies to expenses for taking care of elderly family members. The government aims to ensure care, support, recreation, and security for the elderly.

          老年人生活和權益保障狀況持續改善。中國大力發展養老服務,逐步建立居家社區機構相協調、醫養康養相結合的養老服務體系,大力開展農村留守老年人關愛服務,推進老年人家庭適老化改造和老年宜居環境建設,將贍養老人支出納入個人所得稅抵扣范圍,努力讓老年人老有所養、老有所依、老有所樂、老有所安。

          In 2020, the government brought 18.3 million poor elderly people into the scope of subsistence allowances, and covered 3.9 million elderly people living in extreme poverty with government support. Subsidies are ensured at the provincial level nationwide for poor elderly people who cannot perform essential self-care. As of 2020, 30.6 million elderly people enjoyed old-age allowances, 810,000 enjoyed nursing subsidies, and 235,000 enjoyed service subsidies. There were 38,000 care institutions and 280,000 community care facilities for the elderly across the country, with a total of 8.2 million beds.

          2020年,國家將1834萬困難老年人及時納入最低生活保障范圍,388萬老年人納入特困人員救助供養范圍。經濟困難的高齡失能等老年人補貼制度實現省級全覆蓋。截至2020年,全國享受高齡津貼、護理補貼、服務補貼的老年人分別為3058.9萬、81萬和23.5萬。截至2020年,全國建成各類養老機構3.8萬個,社區養老服務機構和設施有28萬個,養老床位合計823.8萬張。

          The State Council has issued policies supporting the provision of both traditional and digital public services to ensure ease of access for elderly people.

          國務院辦公廳印發文件,強調堅持傳統服務方式與智能化服務創新并行,切實解決老年人在運用智能技術方面遇到的困難。

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